Opening Plenary with Representatives of all GRF One Health Summit 2012 Patronage Organizations and Key Note Lectures
PART 1: Welcome Addresses
PART 2: Introducing One Health - One Planet - One Future
Whereas the One Health paradigm has been out there for quite a while, it has only recently revived Its conceptual evolution has been catalysed mainly by researchers in the Americas, Europe, and Oceania. Now is the time to broaden its base – thematically but also in terms of stakeholders and participating groups, and global reach. Past and on-going discussions within the One Health movement focus on the development of a Global One Health Network in order to enable integration of vital aspects and themes, and collaboration across disciplines, sectors and communities of practice. The network shall comprise entities and individuals from research, international organizations and public authorities, civil society with patient’s organizations, and the private sector and lead to more consensus and tangible outcomes. In this session, the various views and stand-points on the One Health movement shall be presented, evaluated and compared. The subsequent discussions should aim to identify common ground and energise the establishment of a Global One Health Network.
Emerging infectious diseases are health risks with significant consequences for human populations. In particular zoonotic diseases transmitted from animals to humans contain important risks for public health. But their control largely depends on interventions in the domestic animal or wildlife reservoir. This session shall discuss the added value – an essential feature of One Health – of joint human and animal studies on zoonoses and their control. By emphasizing issues on joint surveillance, cross-species transmission dynamics and cross-sector economics of disease control it will clearly emerge why a cooperation of human and animal health is justified over current single sector approaches and initiatives. Discussions in this session will focus on examples of joint human and animal studies on zoonoses and the effects of migration, mobility or animal/people movement for the transmission and spread of zoonotic diseases. Consecutively, the great potential One Health offers in terms of cost-effectiveness of interventions in animals and humans will emerge, as well as the benefits of prevention measures and preparedness against a merely reactive response and the added value to be achieved through closer cooperation of different sectors, disciplines and public private partnerships.
Plenary Session III: European Priorities for Health regarding Chronic and Respiratory Diseases
Affecting approximately one billion people, asthma and allergies have become common chronic diseases in the world with a rising prevalence in developing countries. The mortality, particularly in food allergy-related anaphylaxis and severe asthma, is increasing. There is no established way of prevention and the major unmet needs include better treatment of severe diseases and curative therapies. The leading priority for the Polish Presidency of the Council of the European Union is to reduce health inequalities across European societies, as well as prevention and control of respiratory diseases in children. Allergic inflammation takes place due to development of an immune response induced by allergens leading to several diseases including asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, anaphylaxis, urticaria and atopic dermatitis. The interaction of the immune system with the changing environment is thought to be the main reason for the increased prevalence. This session shall analyse causes of allergies in a changing environment, including relevance of protective factors and the role of human/animal contact as well as raw animal products in the development of allergies in early life, and will cover measures to be necessary to cope with the dramatic increase in allergic, chronic and respiratory diseases, highlighting also the additional impact due to climate change.
The future and sustainability of agricultural production is a key aspect of the broader One Health paradigm. Food is at the core of human health and a secure supply, fairer distribution and less waste, as well as safety of food hence must be the centrepiece of policies With the predicted global population growth the demand for food will increase correspondingly, exacerbated by the shift towards more meat products in the diets. But the present and future challenge of food security cannot be accomplished without food safety and vice versa. Food produced in ecologically stable and healthy environments stabilises the supply chain and reduces the risks of food insecurity and hunger. On the level of human health this can be projected upwards along the food chain – healthy food stems from healthy plants and animals which in turn can only be raised in healthy ecosystems, be it by means of traditional or modern agriculture. In contrast, unsustainable food production systems, using up limited natural resources and engendering environmental contamination represent supply chain risks and are highly inefficient when waste and health consequences of consuming unsafe food are considered. This session will discuss pathways towards healthy food production systems that are fit to meet the challenges of the future: more food and less waste production, higher food safety, stabilisation of ecosystems and the prevention of foodborne disease – for sustainable human, animal and environmental health.
Plenary Session V: Climate Change, Environmental Health and Systemic Approaches: links, implications and further needed emphases for the One Health paradigm
Global climate change and anthropogenic alterations in the world’s ecosystems through agricultural, commercial and industrial practices and other patterns of human-environment interactions imply health risks for humans, animals and natural resources alike. Water and land are assets and services not only highly sensitive to such changes but also crucial for the health and well-being of all three groups. The thematic focus of the session is on reducing- human-environment related health risks that are connected to issues on water, land, biodiversity, climate and ecosystem services. Such discussion will lead to strategic interventions in order to control and protect complex ecosystems and repair them from disturbance. Taking into account links between the One Health and the Ecosystem Health approach (EcoHealth), this session will focus on better understanding the “creeping crisis” and, more importantly, promoting solution oriented interventions based on a One Health approach. Emphasizing socio-ecological and socio-environmental determinants of health, including concepts of equity, institutions and access to health, solid case studies shall demonstrate the added value, which can be created through a stronger inclusion of water, land and ecosystem health into the present One Health paradigm.
Earth scientists call our time the Anthropocene, a period when human activities are influencing Earth’s major natural cycles as well as all societal, cultural and economic narratives. The One Health complex is at the very heart of the Anthropocene. It is a major factor of globalization and global change, and cuts across all global megatrends, be they climate change, biodiversity, human development, cultural evolution or economic and political stability. However, One Health challenges affect people, cultures, markets and governance systems differentially. Therefore, there are no one-sided or “one size fits all” solutions, but an urgent call for co-ordinated local action. This session will address One Health in the context of development, globalization and global change, based on the principles of integrative risk management, and discusses the contributions of Rio +20 and the MDGs in connection with sustainable investments and global subsidiarity.
Cities and metropolitan regions play an increasingly significant role for effectively dealing with One Health. The impacts of climate change and natural hazards, the degradation of ecosystem services, pollution and contamination, changing livelihood conditions for humans and animals, and development challenges put enormous pressure on local governments and civil society. Additionally, in developed and emerging countries, non-communicable and lifestyle diseases increasingly cause a substantial part of deaths recorded each year, especially in cities. Road traffic, for example, has major environmental and economic consequences, as well as significant effects on population health and the demands of health services, through its impact on chronic diseases (including cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses). The treatment of such chronic diseases increases the financial burden of health care, which could be avoided or significantly reduced through preventive measures. In developing countries, the urban poor are increasingly marginalised and excluded from access to health and community services. A mismatch exists between regulatory policies and rapidly growing urbanisation and industrialisation in unplanned urban agglomerations. This session will address urban health challenges in the context of continuing urbanisation, industrialisation and global change. It will explore the added value of applying the One Health paradigm using interdisciplinary, intersectoral and solution-oriented contributions.
The One Health concept implies that human, animal, environmental, and planetary health are closely linked and mutually interdependent. Therefore, addressing the One Health challenge effectively requires novel and integrative approaches. A key contribution has to come through new avenues in financing and investment, both public and private, along with multi-stakeholder management and knowledge-transfer. Beyond the tools and formats that have, for instance, been discussed within the context of climate change financing, we must add value by bringing the strengths of combined instruments and policies to bear on the One Health area. The session will address the theme of sustainable financing and investment for One Health from a multi-scalar perspective, including innovative finance tools, incentives and targeted investments, and cost-benefit aspects. Highlighted speakers will include key representatives from public authorities and international organizations, financial institutions, the private and investment sectors, and economic think tanks.
Closing Ceremony – The Davos One Health Action Plan